Voice function in gender-diverse people assigned female at birth: Results from a participant-centered mixed-methods study and implications for clinical practice Academic Article uri icon


  • Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were indications of restrictions to voice function in our group of gender-diverse people assigned female at birth (GD people AFAB ) and whether the participants would benefit from professional voice support. Method We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, mixed-methods study combining qualitative content analyses of semistructured interviews, phoniatric examinations, and acoustical voice analyses. Fourteen German-speaking GD people AFAB participated. The data were examined for indications of restrictions to voice function according to the results of participant self-evaluation, auditory-perceptual analyses, laryngostroboscopic examinations, and acoustical measurements. Results All participants presented with indications of restrictions to voice function, with vocal power, voice quality, singing voice, laryngeal function, pitch range/variability, and vocal control having found to be most frequently affected (in over 60% of participants). Sixty-four percent of participants expressed an interest in professional voice support, with clinicians and researchers recommending professional voice support for 67% and 71%, respectively. Conclusions GD people AFAB may experience restrictions to a range of domains of voice function and request or be recommended to participate in professional voice support. Research into this area needs to be intensified so that a more in-depth understanding of the potential voice problems GD people AFAB might experience can be produced and members of this group can be provided with more comprehensive, evidence-based, and high-quality professional support if and when they need it.

publication date

  • 2019