Association of pediatric obesity treatment, including a dietary component, with change in depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Importance

    Children and adolescents with obesity are at higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and adolescent dieting is a risk factor for the development of depression. Therefore, determining the psychological effect of obesity treatment interventions is important to consider.

    Objective

    To investigate the association between obesity treatment interventions, with a dietary component, and the change in symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Data sources

    Searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO were conducted from inception to August 2018. Hand searching of references was conducted to identify missing studies.

    Study selection

    Obesity treatment interventions, with a dietary component, conducted in children and adolescents (age <18 years) with overweight/obesity, and validated assessment of depression and/or anxiety were included.

    Data extraction and synthesis

    Data were independently extracted by 1 reviewer and checked for accuracy. Meta-analysis, using a random-effects model, was used to combine outcome data and moderator analysis conducted to identify intervention characteristics that may influence change in depression and anxiety. The meta-analyses were finalized in May 2019.

    Main outcomes and measures

    Change in symptoms of depression and anxiety postintervention and at the latest follow-up.

    Results

    Of 3078 articles screened, 44 studies met inclusion criteria with a combined sample of 3702 participants (age range, 5.6 to 16.6 years) and intervention duration of 2 weeks to 15 months. Studies reported either no change or a statistically significant reduction in symptoms of depression or anxiety. Meta-analyses of 36 studies found a reduction in depressive symptoms postintervention (standardized mean difference [SE], -0.31 [0.04]; P < .001), maintained at follow-up in 11 studies at 6 to 16 months from baseline (standardized mean difference [SE], -0.25 [0.07]; P < .001). Anxiety was reduced postintervention (10 studies; standardized mean difference [SE], -0.38 [0.10]; P < .001) and at follow-up (4 studies; standardized mean difference [SE], -0.32 [0.15]; P = .03). Longer intervention duration was associated with a greater reduction in anxiety (R2 = 0.82; P < .001). Higher body mass index z score at baseline was associated with a greater reduction in depression (R2 = 0.19; P = .03).

    Conclusions and relevance

    Structured, professionally run pediatric obesity treatment is not associated with an increased risk of depression or anxiety and may result in a mild reduction in symptoms. Treatment of weight concerns should be considered within the treatment plan for young people with depression and obesity.

publication date

  • 2019