We investigated the cognitive and emotional reactions resulting from a human papillomavirus-related illness threat (i.e. testing positive for human papillomavirus) and the potential behavioral implications resulting from these psychosocial processes among men (N = 536). Structural equation modeling was used to explore a theoretical model explaining human papillomavirus vaccine intentions. The model fit the data well and explained 16 percent of the variance in vaccine intentions. Negative emotional response mediated the path between illness threat and vaccine intentions. Threat of genital warts was a salient concern and was positively associated with negative emotional response and subsequent vaccine intentions. Implications for vaccine promotion are discussed.