Approaching 4 Decades of Legislation in the National Family Planning Program: An Analysis of Title X's History From 1970 to 2008 Academic Article uri icon


  • Family planning is an important public health activity. Title X (Pub L No. 91-572), enacted in 1970, remains the only national family planning program in the United States dedicated to providing voluntary and confidential services to all individuals. We conducted a thematic analysis of Title X's legislative history. Of 293 federal bills included in the legislative history, only 20 (6.8%) were enacted into law. Regardless of the proposed challenges, limited changes have been adopted. Except for technical amendments, bills involving restrictions accounted for the highest percentage of enacted bills, demonstrating efforts to undermine reproductive health rights. Title X requires political will and bipartisan support if it is to continue to protect individuals' reproductive rights.


  • Vamos, Cheryl A
  • Daley, Ellen M
  • Perrin, Kay M
  • Mahan, Charles S
  • Buhi, Eric R

publication date

  • November 2011