BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes are two of the most important public health problems. Outcomes for patients with these disorders vary considerably, likely due to the added influence of a range of interacting clinical, metabolic, environmental, lifestyle, genetic and psychosocial risk factors associated with these diseases. The Baker Biobank study was designed to characterise these factors to inform better risk prediction, earlier diagnosis and better treatment of CVDs and diabetes. METHODS:This paper describes the detailed methods for the establishment of the Baker Biobank. The study collected extensive phenotypic detail about the participants recruited from Victoria, Australia. Data and samples were collected at the Departments of Cardiology and Respiratory Medicine at the Alfred Hospital and Healthy Hearts Program at the Baker Institute. RESULTS:A total of 6,530 adults with age 18-69 years were recruited into the Biobank. The majority of these participants (63%) were male. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of the Biobank Cohort at the time of data collection was 57(15) years. The study collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural and lifestyle factors, anthropometric measurements, medical and medication history, and blood levels of various biomarkers. The study also collected and stored Guthrie cards, serum, plasma, buffy coat, whole blood collected in Tempus tubes (for RNA extraction). For some samples extracted DNA and RNA is stored. The Biobank data is also linked to echocardiogram, hospital admission, pathology and mortality datasets. The Baker Biobank data and samples are available for health researchers with approval of Biobank Steering Group and Human Research Ethics Committee. CONCLUSION:The Baker Biobank provides valuable data and samples into the study of the interplay among cardiovascular diseases risk factors and their impact on morbidity and mortality in Australia.