Proteins imported into the mitochondrial matrix are synthesized in the cytosol with an N-terminal presequence and are translocated through hetero-oligomeric translocase complexes of the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The channel across the inner membrane is formed by the presequence translocase, which consists of roughly six distinct subunits; however, it is not known which subunits actually form the channel. Here we report that purified Tim23 forms a hydrophilic, approximately 13-24 A wide channel characteristic of the mitochondrial presequence translocase. The Tim23 channel is cation selective and activated by a membrane potential and presequences. The channel is formed by the C-terminal domain of Tim23 alone, whereas the N-terminal domain is required for selectivity and a high-affinity presequence interaction. Thus, Tim23 forms a voltage-sensitive high-conductance channel with specificity for mitochondrial presequences.