Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Intact ParathyroidHormone Influence Muscle Outcomes in Childrenand Adolescents
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Increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are shown to improve strength in adults; however, data in pediatric populations are scant and equivocal. In this ancillary study of a larger-scale, multi-sited, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention in US children and adolescents, we examined the associations between changes in vitamin D metabolites and changes in muscle mass, strength, and composition after 12 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation. Healthy male and female, black and white children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 13 years from two US states (Georgia 34°N and Indiana 40°N) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive an oral vitamin D3 dose of 0, 400, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/d for 12 weeks between the winter months of 2009 to 2011 (N = 324). Analyses of covariance, partial correlations, and regression analyses of baseline and 12-week changes (post-baseline) in vitamin D metabolites (serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 D, intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH]), and outcomes of muscle mass, strength, and composition (total body fat-free soft tissue [FFST], handgrip strength, forearm and calf muscle cross-sectional area [MCSA], muscle density, and intermuscular adipose tissue [IMAT]) were assessed. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2 D, but not iPTH, increased over time, as did fat mass, FFST, forearm and calf MCSA, forearm IMAT, and handgrip strength (p < 0.05). Vitamin D metabolites were not associated with muscle strength at baseline nor after the 12-week intervention. Changes in serum 25(OH)D correlated with decreases in forearm IMAT, whereas changes in serum iPTH predicted increases in forearm and calf MCSA and IMAT (p < 0.05). Overall, increases in 25(OH)D did not influence muscle mass or strength in vitamin D-sufficient children and adolescents; however, the role of iPTH on muscle composition in this population is unknown and warrants further investigation. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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