CONTEXT:Although animal studies suggest that adenovirus 36 (Ad36) infection is linked to obesity and systemic inflammation, human data are scant and equivocal. OBJECTIVE:Associations of Ad36 infection with total body adiposity and inflammatory-related markers were determined in 291 children aged 9-13 years (50% female, 49% black). DESIGN:Fasting blood samples were measured for presence of Ad36-specific antibodies and TNF-α, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Fat mass and fat-free soft tissue mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of Ad36 seropositivity [Ad36(+)] was 42%. There was a higher percentage of Ad36(+) children in the highest tertiles of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with their respective middle and lowest tertiles (both P < .03). There was also a trend toward a higher prevalence of Ad36(+) children in the highest tertile of VEGF compared with tertiles 1 and 2 (P = .05). Multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for age, race, sex, and fat-free soft tissue mass, revealed that compared with children with the lowest TNF-α, IL-6, and VEGF levels (tertile 1), the adjusted odds ratios for Ad36(+) were 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.0], 2.4 (95% CI 1.4-4.0), and 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.3), respectively, for those in the highest TNF-α, IL-6, and VEGF levels (tertile 3). No association was observed between Ad36(+) and greater levels of fat mass or MCP-1 (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS:In children, our data suggest that Ad36(+) may be associated with biomarkers implicated in inflammation but not with greater levels of fat mass.