Bone is a connective tissue containing cells, fibers, and ground substance. There are many functions in the body in which the bone participates, such as storing minerals, providing internal support, protecting vital organs, enabling movement, and providing attachment sites for muscles and tendons. Bone is unique because its collagen framework absorbs energy, whereas the mineral encased within the matrix allows bone to resist deformation. This article provides an overview of the structure and function of bone tissue from a macroscopic to microscopic level and discusses the physiological processes contributing to upper extremity bone health. It concludes by discussing common conditions influencing upper extremity bone health.