The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and evaluation of the Victorian Aged Care Assessment Service (ACAS) quality improvement framework. The framework was developed in 2001 by a reference group consisting of ACAS managers and government officers, to enable ACAS to engage in a quality improvement process specific to its core areas of business. The framework comprises seven core business domains which are used by the ACAS for annual quality improvement planning and reporting. Using the qualitative methodology of thematic analysis, the ACAS Evaluation Unit has examined annual quality improvement reports submitted by the 18 Victorian ACAS teams from 2002-03 to 2006-07. The findings were used to revise the framework and the ACAS quality improvement reporting template. The number and range of ACAS-related quality improvement activities carried out in Victoria since the implementation of the framework demonstrates its effectiveness as a mechanism for capturing and centrally recording quality improvement activities in areas of core ACAS business. The paper concludes that the Victorian QI framework could be drawn on to develop a quality improvement framework for the Aged Care Assessment Program nationwide.