Cognitive behavioural models suggest that individuals abandon their weight loss efforts because they fail to achieve their weight loss goal, their perceived benefits of weight loss (primary goals), or both. There are currently no published tools available to adequately measure primary goals. The purpose of the current study was to explore the factor structure and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Primary Goals for Weight Loss Questionnaire (PGWLQ). One hundred and twenty-seven overweight and obese adult females actively trying to lose weight completed the PGWLQ. A four-factor solution (Comfort & Mobility; Fitness; Health & Illness; Participation & Activity) provided the best fit for the physical items, and a five-factor solution (Body Image & Self-esteem; Clothing Options & Fashion; Work Productivity & Opportunity; Social Life & Desirability; Sexual Confidence) provided the best fit for the psychosocial items. All PGWLQ factors demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. The PGWLQ demonstrated excellent internal consistency and weak to moderate test–retest reliability. Results of the present study suggest that the PGWLQ may be a promising research and clinical tool and further refinement of the PGWLQ and investigation of its factor structure is warranted.