Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Weight Loss at 10 or More Years for All Bariatric Procedures and a Single-Centre Review of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding
INTRODUCTION:Durability is a key requirement for the broad acceptance of bariatric surgery. We report on durability at and beyond 10 years with a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reports providing data at 10 or more years and a single-centre study of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with 20 years of follow-up. METHODS:Systematic review with meta-analysis was performed on all eligble reports containing 10 or more years of follow-up data on weight loss after bariatric surgery. In addition, a prospective cohort study of LAGB patients measuring weight loss and reoperation at up to 20 years is presented. RESULTS:Systematic review identified 57 datasets of which 33 were eligible for meta-analysis. Weighted means of the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were calculated for all papers included in the systematic review. Eighteen reports of gastric bypass showed a weighted mean of 56.7%EWL, 17 reports of LAGB showed 45.9%EWL, 9 reports of biliopancreatic bypass +/- duodenal switch showed 74.1%EWL and 2 reports of sleeve gastrectomy showed 58.3%EWL. Meta-analyses of eligible studies demonstrated comparable results. Reoperations were common in all groups. At a single centre, 8378 LAGB patients were followed for up to 20 years with an overall follow-up rate of 54%. No surgical deaths occurred. Weight loss at 20 years (N = 35) was 30.1 kg, 48.9%EWL and 22.2% total weight loss (%TWL). Reoperation rate was initially high but reduced markedly with improved band and surgical and aftercare techniques. CONCLUSION:All current procedures are associated with substantial and durable weight loss. More long-term data are needed for one-anastomosis gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Reoperation is likely to remain common across all procedures.