The extracardiac conduit Fontan procedure in Australia and New Zealand: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome predicts worse early and late outcomes Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with hospital and long-term outcomes in a binational cohort of extracardiac conduit (ECC) Fontan recipients. METHODS: All patients who underwent an ECC Fontan procedure from 1997 to 2010 in Australia and New Zealand were identified, and perioperative, follow-up, echocardiographic and reintervention data collected. Risk factors for early and late mortality, failure and adverse outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 570 patients were identified, and late follow-up was available in 529 patients. The mean follow-up was 6.7 years (standard deviation: 3.5) and completeness of the follow-up was 98%. There were seven hospital mortalities (1%) and 21 patients (4%) experienced early failure (death, Fontan takedown/revision or mechanical circulatory support). Prolonged length of stay occurred in 10% (57 patients), and prolonged effusions in 9% (51 patients). Overall survival at 14 years was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93-98%), and late survival for patients discharged with intact Fontan was 98% (95% CI: 94-99%). The rates of late failure (late death, transplantation, takedown, New York Heart Association class III/IV or protein-losing enteropathy) and adverse events (late failure, reoperation, percutaneous intervention, pacemaker, thromboembolic event or supraventricular tachycardia) per 100 patient-years were 0.8 and 3.8, and their 14-year freedoms were 83% (95% CI: 70-91%) and 53% (95% CI: 41-64%), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) was strongly associated with prolonged effusions (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4-5.9), late failure (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.5) and adverse events (HR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-7.5). CONCLUSIONS: The extracardiac Fontan procedure provides excellent survival into the second decade of life, but half of patients will suffer a late adverse event by 14 years. Patients with HLHS are at higher risk of late adverse events than other morphological groups, but their survival is still excellent.


  • Iyengar, A
  • Winlaw, D
  • Galati, J
  • Wheaton, G
  • Gentles, T
  • Grigg, L
  • Justo, R
  • Radford, D
  • Weintraub, R
  • Bullock, A
  • Celermajer, D
  • D'Udekem, Y

publication date

  • 2014