Trends in Fontan surgery and risk factors for early adverse outcomes after Fontan surgery: The Australia and New Zealand Fontan Registry experience Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVES: This study examined changes in practice and analyzed risk factors for adverse early outcomes after Fontan surgery through use of a binational, population-based registry. METHODS: Demographic, preoperative, and perioperative data were collected from all participating institutions of the Australia and New Zealand Fontan Registry. Patient and operative characteristics were analyzed with┬ámultivariable logistic regression for impact on early mortality, early Fontan failure (death, takedown, or┬ámechanical support), effusions (prolonging hospital stay >30 days or requiring surgical reintervention), and stay longer than 30 days. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 3.5% (37/1071) and declined throughout the study period, from 8% (1975-1990) to 4% (1991-2000) and 1% (2001-2010). There were no differences between the extracardiac and lateral tunnel modifications for any outcome. After 2006, the extracardiac conduit was performed exclusively, with 1.3% mortality. The proportion of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome rose to 17% in the current era, and this group had more effusions (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.6) and stayed on average 2 days longer in the hospital. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome was also an independent risk factor for composite adverse early outcome (death, failure, prolonged effusions, or prolonged stay >30 days; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval 1.4-4.8 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The extracardiac conduit is now the exclusive Fontan modification performed in Australia and New Zealand. Even with a higher proportion of high-risk cases, perioperative outcomes are excellent in the modern era. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome confers a higher risk of prolonged pleural effusion and early composite adverse outcome.


  • Iyengar, AJ
  • Winlaw, DS
  • Galati, JC
  • Celermajer, DS
  • Wheaton, GR
  • Gentles, TL
  • Grigg, LE
  • Weintraub, RG
  • Bullock, A
  • Justo, RN
  • D'Udekem, Y

publication date

  • 2014

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