OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the surgical outcomes of the repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects (cAVSDs) in our institution in the current era. METHODS: From 2000 to 2011, 138 patients underwent definitive repair of cAVSD. Repair was performed using a two-patch technique in 92.0% of patients and one-patch technique in 2.2%, and the ventricular septal component was closed directly in 5.8% of patients. RESULTS: Operative mortality was 1.4% (2 of 138). Overall mortality was 5.8% (8 of 138). Follow-up was 96% complete. Freedom from reoperation was 84.3% (95% CI 77.1-91.5%) at 8 years. Age >6 months at repair was associated with higher rates of reoperation (P = 0.001; HR 6.85; 95% CI 2.30-20.44). However, operating at <6 months of age was associated with longer intensive care unit stay (P = 0.019; median 2.7 vs 1.4 days), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.001; median 1.7 vs 0.9 days) and postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.016; median 8 vs 5 days). Moderate or greater left atrioventricular valvular regurgitation (LAVVR) at discharge was a risk factor for reoperation (P < 0.001; HR 10.85; 95% CI 3.75-31.40). CONCLUSIONS: Repair of cAVSD carries low mortality, but a moderate reoperation rate. An optimal time for repair of the cAVSD is between 3 and 6 months of age. Repair prior to 3 months of age and the need for cleft closure were associated with a higher degree of LAVVR at discharge. Greater LAVVR at discharge is a risk factor for reoperation regardless of age at initial repair. In the current era, Down's syndrome is not a risk factor for reoperation.