Measuring Self-Esteem Changes in Children and Adolescents Affected by Overweight or Obesity: A Scoping Review of Instruments Currently Used in Multicomponent Weight-Management Interventions
Purpose: Children and adolescents affected by overweight or obesity are at risk of greater declines in self-esteem than healthy-weight individuals. Participation in multicomponent weight-management programs can positively influence self-esteem in children and adolescents affected by overweight or obesity; however, the variety of questionnaires used to assess self-esteem makes it difficult to compare changes across and identify effective interventions. This review identified and critically examined questionnaires currently used for monitoring self-esteem in children and adolescents. Methods: An electronic search, from 2007 onward, identified multicomponent weight-management interventions that included a measure of self-esteem. A second search identified studies that reported validation assessment of the questionnaires identified in search one. Results: Seven validated self-esteem questionnaires were employed across the 36 studies identified in search one, including (in descending order of use) Harter's Self-Perception Profiles for children and adolescents, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Beck Youth Inventory II, Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile. These tools measured global self-esteem (n = 1) as well as self-esteem as a series of subscales (multidimensional), such as physical appearance and social competence (n = 6). Conclusions: In the absence of changes in global self-esteem, multidimensional tools allow the examination of domains of self-esteem. The Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) and adolescents questionnaire is an example of a tool that encompasses multidimensional aspects of self-esteem and global self-esteem and is appropriate for younger and older aged children and adolescents.