Pain Perception of Children Undergoing Nasendoscopy for Investigation of Voice and Resonance Disorders Academic Article uri icon


  • The primary objective of this descriptive and correlational study was to determine the level of pain and discomfort perceived by children undergoing nasendoscopy for investigation of voice and resonance disorders. The secondary objective was to explore whether gender, age, previous experience of painful or distressing medical procedures, and previous experience of nasendoscopy influenced the perception of pain during nasendoscopy. Twenty-three children self-reported the degree of pain perceived during nasendoscopy using the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Parents also used this scale to rate their child's perceived pain. Otolaryngologists and speech pathologists rated the intensity and frequency of observed pain-related behaviors using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised and the Procedure Behavior Checklist. Children perceived the procedure, on average, to be moderately painful, as did their parents. Only two children reported perceiving no pain during the procedure. The most frequently observed pain-related behaviors were muscle tension (86.96%), physical resistance (69.57%), requiring physical restraint (60.87%), crying (43.48%), and expressions of verbal pain (39.13%). No significant correlations were found between self-reported pain or observed pain and the variables of age, gender, previous experience of nasendoscopy, and previous experience of painful or distressing medical procedures, although children aged 4-7 years reported significantly more pain than children aged 8-18 years. Most children perceive nasendoscopy to be painful to some degree. This perceived pain occurred in conjunction with several observable pain-related behaviors that have the potential to interfere with the success of the procedure.


  • Hay, Imogen
  • Oates, Jennifer
  • Giannini, Alessandra
  • Berkowitz, Robert
  • Rotenberg, Brian

publication date

  • May 2009