Blue-eye trevalla (Hyperoglyphe antarctica), blue warehou (Seriolella brama) and silver warehou (Seriolella punctata) from the family Centrolophidae are three commercially important species in the Australian fishery. These species are currently managed as single stocks. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of phenotypic structuring in these species reflect underlying genetic stock structure using an analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. The analysis revealed high levels of haplotype diversity within populations. The most common haplotypes for the species occurred in all geographical locations sampled. For S. brama, although structuring was not significant after Bonferroni correction, differences between two sites were sufficient to warrant caution in the management of fishery zones for this species. There were also some indications of structuring when sites were grouped into common regions. Demographic analysis suggested that S. brama might have had a history of population bottlenecks followed by sudden population expansion, potentially contributing to genetic structuring in the fishery. No structuring was detected for H. antarctica and S. punctata. The present study highlights the need for, and the utility of, multiple sources of information, that is, genetic, phenotypic, behavioural and ecological, when managing marine fisheries and the need to take a cautionary approach to the interpretation of genetic data for fisheries management.