BACKGROUND/AIM: To identify risk and protective factors for crash casualty outcomes in occupational light vehicles (OLV), a previously under-recognized work context for injuries and fatalities. METHODS: A register-based study was conducted using linked vehicle crash and registration data (n = 13,491) for the Australian state of New South Wales. Univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to assess the relationship between casualty outcomes and variables drawn from four domains of potential determinants of severity: user, vehicle, road, and work organization factors. RESULTS: Nineteen percent of OLV crashes had OLV-user casualties (n = 2,506) and 1% fatalities (n = 34). Adjusted casualty risk factors included tired driver (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.7), no seat belt use (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.3), and excessive speed (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). Adjusted fatality risk factors were no seat belt (OR 12.9, 95% CI 4.9-34.3) and high-speed zone crash (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.3). CONCLUSIONS: OLV users are at risk from both recognized road risks and hazards specific to OLV use. Findings suggest that risk reduction could be improved by the use of safer vehicles, fatigue management, and journey planning.