Studies on turnover intention among Chinese general practitioners (GPs) at the national level are limited. This study aimed to assess intention to leave and its associated factors among a nationally representative sample of GPs. The participants were selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 3236 GPs in China between October 2017 and February 2018. A multiple linear stepwise regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with turnover intention. Over 70.0% GPs had a moderate or high turnover intention. GPs who were male, were younger, had a higher education level, had a lower professional title, had a lower income level, and had a temporal work contract had higher turnover intention. In addition, GPs who worked night shifts, had low job satisfaction, and had few opportunities for professional development reported higher turnover intention. Substantial gender and regional differences in predictors of turnover intention among GPs were observed. The study showed that turnover intention in Chinese GPs is high, and the factors influencing turnover intention were low professional title and income level, high education level, having a temporary work contract, working night shifts, and limited opportunities for professional development.