MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene or protein expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translational repression or mRNA degradation. Distinct expression levels of miRNAs, including miR-29b, have been detected in various biological fluids and tissues from a large variety of disease models. However, how miRNAs “react” and function in different cellular environments is still largely unknown. In this study, the regulation patterns of miR-29b between human and mouse cell lines were compared for the first time. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing was used to stably knockdown miR-29b in human cancer HeLa cells and mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells with minimum off-targets. Genome editing revealed mir-29b-1, other than mir-29b-2, to be the main source of generating mature miR-29b. The editing of miR-29b decreased expression levels of its family members miR-29a/c via changing the tertiary structures of surrounding nucleotides. Comparing transcriptome profiles of human and mouse cell lines, miR-29b displayed common regulation pathways involving distinct downstream targets in macromolecular complex assembly, cell cycle regulation, and Wnt and PI3K-Akt signalling pathways; miR-29b also demonstrated specific functions reflecting cell characteristics, including fibrosis and neuronal regulations in NIH/3T3 cells and tumorigenesis and cellular senescence in HeLa cells.