Fluorescent dyes, especially those emitting in the long wavelength region, are excellent candidates in the area of bioassay and bioimaging. In this work, we report a series of simple organic fluorescent dyes consisting of electron-donating aniline groups and electron-withdrawing barbituric acid groups. These dyes are very easy to construct while emitting strongly in the red region in their solid state. The photophysical properties of these dyes, such as solvatochromism and aggregation-induced emission, are systematically characterized. Afterward, the structure–property relationships of these barbituric acid based fluorogens are discussed. Finally, we demonstrate their potential applications for protein amyloid fibril detection.