Tissue slices from barley seedlings were subjected to heat shock and metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine and [35S]cysteine. Mitochondria and chloroplasts were isolated and shown to contain two novel heat shock proteins of 10 and 12 kDa, respectively. The possibility that these proteins, like a mitochondrial 10 kDa stress protein recently isolated from rat hepatoma cells [(1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, in press] represent eukaryotic chaperonin 10 homologues is discussed.