Is there any gender difference for smoking persistence or relapse following diagnosis or hospitalization for coronary heart disease? Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis
Persistent smoking in patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD) has a significant effect on morbidity and mortality. Although there has been considerable debate around gender differences in smoking cessation, conclusive evidence on how gender impacts rates of smoking cessation and/or relapse following CHD diagnosis is lacking.Our aim was to test the hypothesis that female smokers with CHD were more likely to persist in smoking or relapse post-diagnosis or hospitalization than male smokers. We searched PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published in the last 10 years. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random effects model.Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The aggregated sample size was 36 591, 20 617 (56%) were smokers of which 2564 (12%) were female. Meta-analyses of eight studies where smoking prevalence could be measured, showed that females were less likely to be smokers at baseline than males (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.70). Overall, one in two (47%) smokers persisted in smoking/relapsed following a diagnosis or hospitalization for CHD; but there was no gender difference in the rate of persistent smoking/relapse (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95 to 1.21).Female smokers with CHD were relatively uncommon in the included study populations. However, the rate of persistent smoking/relapse was high in both female and male smokers following a diagnosis or hospitalization for CHD. Therefore similar, sustained smoking cessation efforts are warranted for both genders.There was no gender difference for persistent smoking/relapse following a diagnosis or hospitalization for CHD, but the rate was high in both female and male smokers. Therefore, similar, sustained smoking cessation efforts are warranted for both genders.