PURPOSE:Drug-eluting balloon catheters (DEBc) coated with paclitaxel (PTX) have been associated with potential safety concerns. An efficacious but less toxic balloon coating may reduce these outcomes. We evaluated a novel DEBc, Epi-Solve, coated with metacept-3 (MCT-3), a member of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) class of epigenetic agents, in a large animal model of neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). METHODS:Plain balloon angioplasty (PABA) catheters were ultrasonically coated with MCT-3 to generate Epi-Solve DEBc. An ovine model of NIH formation was established utilising partial left common carotid artery (LCA) ligation. Twenty-eight days post neointima (NI) induction, PABA, Epi-Solve or PTX-coated DEBc were deployed at the site of induced NI formation. Twenty-eight days post-intervention, ligated vessels were evaluated for attenuation of NI formation, gene expression profiles and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS:Epi-Solve DEBc demonstrated attenuation of NIH over no intervention and a trend to inhibition of NIH over PABA. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical studies identified significant anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory signatures and reduced vascular endothelial cell activation compared to PABA. CONCLUSIONS:Epi-Solve is a novel HDACi-coated DEBc which demonstrates significant anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory signatures and reduced vascular endothelial cell activation compared to PABA in an ovine model and may afford endothelial protection.