To investigate the effects of a supervised longer- (14wk) versus shorter-duration (7wk) rehabilitation program after lung transplantation (LTX).Randomized controlled trial.Outpatient rehabilitation gym setting.Post-LTX patients aged ≥18 years (N=66; 33 women; mean age, 51±13y) who had undergone either single LTX or bilateral LTX.Outpatient rehabilitation program consisting of thrice-weekly sessions with cardiovascular training on bike ergometer and treadmill plus upper and lower limb strength training.Measures were taken at baseline, 7 weeks, 14 weeks, and 6 months by assessors who were blinded to group allocation. Functional exercise capacity was measured by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Strength of quadriceps and hamstrings was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer and recorded as average peak torque of 6 repetitions for both muscles. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.Of the participants, 86% had bilateral LTX and 41% had primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 6MWT increased in both groups with no significant difference between groups at any time point (mean 6mo 6MWD: short, 590±85m vs long, 568±127m; P=0.5). Similarly, at 6 months, there was no difference between groups in quadriceps average peak torque (mean, 115±38Nm vs 114±40Nm, respectively; P=.59), hamstring average peak torque (57±18Nm vs 52±19Nm, respectively; P=.36), or mental or physical health domains of quality of life.Shorter duration (7wk) of rehabilitation achieves comparable outcomes with 14 weeks of supervised rehabilitation for functional exercise capacity, lower limb strength, and quality of life at 6 months after LTX.