The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of, and traditional and emerging risk factors associated with, retinopathy in a hospital-based population of Australian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
This was a cross-sectional study of 483 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Medical files were audited to collect all relevant clinical data. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed from colour retinal images by an ophthalmologist.
Diabetic retinopathy was observed in 11 (2.3%) participants. Logistic regression revealed that the principal components analysis derived risk profile of: higher serum creatinine, older age, higher systolic blood pressures, higher body mass index, abnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<59 mL/min), lower high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, higher serum sodium, longer duration of diabetes and narrower retinal arteriolar calibre was associated with diabetic retinopathy (ExpB=2.60, 95% CI 1.36/4.96, p=0.004).
These results support the concept that the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is likely due to the combined influence of various risk factors, many already identified.