Mapping child growth failure across low- and middle-income countries Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Childhood malnutrition is associated with high morbidity and mortality globally1. Undernourished children are more likely to experience cognitive, physical, and metabolic developmental impairments that can lead to later cardiovascular disease, reduced intellectual ability and school attainment, and reduced economic productivity in adulthood2. Child growth failure (CGF), expressed as stunting, wasting, and underweight in children under five years of age (0-59 months), is a specific subset of undernutrition characterized by insufficient height or weight against age-specific growth reference standards3-5. The prevalence of stunting, wasting, or underweight in children under five is the proportion of children with a height-for-age, weight-for-height, or weight-for-age z-score, respectively, that is more than two standard deviations below the World Health Organization's median growth reference standards for a healthy population6. Subnational estimates of CGF report substantial heterogeneity within countries, but are available primarily at the first administrative level (for example, states or provinces)7; the uneven geographical distribution of CGF has motivated further calls for assessments that can match the local scale of many public health programmes8. Building from our previous work mapping CGF in Africa9, here we provide the first, to our knowledge, mapped high-spatial-resolution estimates of CGF indicators from 2000 to 2017 across 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where 99% of affected children live1, aggregated to policy-relevant first and second (for example, districts or counties) administrative-level units and national levels. Despite remarkable declines over the study period, many LMICs remain far from the ambitious World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets to reduce stunting by 40% and wasting to less than 5% by 2025. Large disparities in prevalence and progress exist across and within countries; our maps identify high-prevalence areas even within nations otherwise succeeding in reducing overall CGF prevalence. By highlighting where the highest-need populations reside, these geospatial estimates can support policy-makers in planning interventions that are adapted locally and in efficiently directing resources towards reducing CGF and its health implications.

authors

  • Kinyoki, Damaris K
  • Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron E
  • Pickering, Brandon V
  • Schaeffer, Lauren E
  • Marczak, Laurie B
  • Lazzar-Atwood, Alice
  • Collison, Michael L
  • Henry, Nathaniel J
  • Abebe, Zegeye
  • Adamu, Abdu A
  • Adekanmbi, Victor
  • Ahmadi, Keivan
  • Ajumobi, Olufemi
  • Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
  • Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M
  • Alahdab, Fares
  • Alijanzadeh, Mehran
  • Alipour, Vahid
  • Altirkawi, Khalid
  • Amini, Saeed
  • Andrei, Catalina Liliana
  • Antonio, Carl Abelardo T
  • Arabloo, Jalal
  • Aremu, Olatunde
  • Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran
  • Atique, Suleman
  • Ausloos, Marcel
  • Avila, Marco
  • Awasthi, Ashish
  • Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina
  • Azari, Samad
  • Badawi, Alaa
  • Baernighausen, Till Winfried
  • Bassat, Quique
  • Baye, Kaleab
  • Bedi, Neeraj
  • Bekele, Bayu Begashaw
  • Bell, Michelle L
  • Bhattacharjee, Natalia V
  • Bhattacharyya, Krittika
  • Bhattarai, Suraj
  • Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
  • Biadgo, Belete
  • Bikbov, Boris
  • Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich
  • Britton, Gabrielle
  • Burstein, Roy
  • Butt, Zahid A
  • Car, Josip
  • Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A
  • Castro, Franz
  • Cerin, Ester
  • Chipeta, Michael G
  • Chu, Dinh-Toi
  • Cork, Michael A
  • Cromwell, Elizabeth A
  • Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia
  • Dandona, Lalit
  • Dandona, Rakhi
  • Daoud, Farah
  • Das Gupta, Rajat
  • Weaver, Nicole Davis
  • De Leo, Diego
  • De Neve, Jan-Walter
  • Deribe, Kebede
  • Desalegn, Beruk Berhanu
  • Deshpande, Aniruddha
  • Desta, Melaku
  • Diaz, Daniel
  • Tadese Dinberu, Mesfin
  • Doku, David Teye
  • Dubey, Manisha
  • Duraes, Andre R
  • Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura
  • Earl, Lucas
  • Effiong, Andem
  • Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
  • El Tantawi, Maha
  • El-Khatib, Ziad
  • Eshrati, Babak
  • Fareed, Mohammad
  • Faro, Andre
  • Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
  • Filip, Irina
  • Fischer, Florian
  • Foigt, Nataliya A
  • Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
  • Fukumoto, Takeshi
  • Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
  • Gezae, Kebede Embaye
  • Ghajar, Alireza
  • Gill, Paramjit Singh
  • Gona, Philimon N
  • Gopalani, Sameer Vali
  • Grada, Ayman
  • Guo, Yuming
  • Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin
  • Haj-Mirzaian, Arya
  • Hall, Jason B
  • Hamidi, Samer
  • Henok, Andualem
  • Prado, Bernardo Hernandez
  • Herrero, Mario
  • Herteliu, Claudiu
  • Hoang, Chi Linh
  • Hole, Michael K
  • Hossain, Naznin
  • Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi
  • Hu, Guoqing
  • Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
  • Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
  • Jha, Ravi Prakash
  • Jonas, Jost B
  • Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
  • Kahsay, Amaha
  • Kanchan, Tanuj
  • Karami, Manoochehr
  • Kasaeian, Amir
  • Khader, Yousef Saleh
  • Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
  • Khater, Mona M
  • Kim, Yun Jin
  • Kimokoti, Ruth W
  • Kisa, Adnan
  • Kochhar, Sonali
  • Kosen, Soewarta
  • Koyanagi, Ai
  • Krishan, Kewal
  • Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
  • Kumar, G Anil
  • Kumar, Manasi
  • Lad, Sheetal D
  • Lami, Faris Hasan
  • Lee, Paul H
  • Levine, Aubrey J
  • Li, Shanshan
  • Linn, Shai
  • Lodha, Rakesh
  • Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
  • Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy
  • Majdan, Marek
  • Majeed, Azeem
  • Malekzadeh, Reza
  • Malta, Deborah Carvalho
  • Mamun, Abdullah A
  • Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
  • Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio
  • Masaka, Anthony
  • Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
  • Mayala, Benjamin K
  • Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola
  • Melku, Mulugeta
  • Mendoza, Walter
  • Mensah, George A
  • Miazgowski, Tomasz
  • Miller, Ted R
  • Mini, GK
  • Mirrakhimov, Erkin M
  • Moazen, Babak
  • Darwesh, Aso Mohammad
  • Mohammed, Shafiu
  • Mohebi, Farnam
  • Mokdad, Ali H
  • Moodley, Yoshan
  • Moradi, Ghobad
  • Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
  • Moraga, Paula
  • Morrison, Shane Douglas
  • Mosser, Jonathan F
  • Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
  • Mueller, Ulrich Otto
  • Murray, Christopher JL
  • Mustafa, Ghulam
  • Naderi, Mehdi
  • Naghavi, Mohsen
  • Najafi, Farid
  • Nangia, Vinay
  • Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith
  • Negoi, Ionut
  • Ngunjiri, Josephine W
  • Huong, Lan Thi Nguyen
  • Nguyen, Long Hoang
  • Son, Hoang Nguyen
  • Nie, Jing
  • Nnaji, Chukwudi A
  • Noubiap, Jean Jacques
  • Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour
  • Nyasulu, Peter S
  • Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
  • Olagunju, Andrew T
  • Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
  • Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
  • Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo
  • Otstavnov, Stanislav S
  • Mahesh, PA
  • Pana, Adrian
  • Pandey, Anamika
  • Pati, Sanghamitra
  • Patil, Snehal T
  • Patton, George C
  • Perico, Norberto
  • Pigott, David M
  • Pirsaheb, Meghdad
  • Piwoz, Ellen G
  • Postma, Maarten J
  • Pourshams, Akram
  • Prakash, Swayam
  • Quintana, Hedley
  • Radfar, Amir
  • Rafiei, Alireza
  • Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
  • Rai, Rajesh Kumar
  • Rajati, Fatemeh
  • Rawaf, David Laith
  • Rawaf, Salman
  • Rawat, Rahul
  • Remuzzi, Giuseppe
  • Renzaho, Andre MN
  • Rios-Gonzalez, Carlos
  • Roever, Leonardo
  • Ross, Jennifer M
  • Rostami, Ali
  • Sadat, Nafis
  • Safari, Yahya
  • Safdarian, Mahdi
  • Sahebkar, Amirhossein
  • Salam, Nasir
  • Salamati, Payman
  • Salimi, Yahya
  • Salimzadeh, Hamideh
  • Samy, Abdallah M
  • Sartorius, Benn
  • Sathian, Brijesh
  • Schipp, Megan F
  • Schwebel, David C
  • Senbeta, Anbissa Muleta
  • Sepanlou, Sadaf G
  • Shaikh, Masood Ali
  • Levy, Teresa Shamah
  • Shamsi, Mohammadbagher
  • Sharafi, Kiomars
  • Sharma, Rajesh
  • Sheikh, Aziz
  • Shil, Apurba
  • Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
  • Singh, Jasvinder A
  • Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
  • Soofi, Moslem
  • Sudaryanto, Agus
  • Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
  • Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
  • Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun
  • Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
  • Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
  • Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse
  • Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L
  • Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
  • Tran, Bach Xuan
  • Tran, Khanh Bao
  • Ullah, Irfan
  • Uthman, Olalekan A
  • Vaezghasemi, Masoud
  • Vaezi, Afsane
  • Valdez, Pascual R
  • Vanderheide, John
  • Veisani, Yousef
  • Violante, Francesco S
  • Vlassov, Vasily
  • Vu, Giang Thu
  • Vu, Linh Gia
  • Waheed, Yasir
  • Walson, Judd L
  • Wang, Yafeng
  • Wang, Yuan-Pang
  • Wangia, Elizabeth N
  • Werdecker, Andrea
  • Xu, Gelin
  • Yamada, Tomohide
  • Yisma, Engida
  • Yonemoto, Naohiro
  • Younis, Mustafa Z
  • Yousefifard, Mahmoud
  • Yu, Chuanhua
  • Bin Zaman, Sojib
  • Zamani, Mohammad
  • Zhang, Yunquan
  • Kassebaum, Nicholas J
  • Hay, Simon I

publication date

  • 2020

published in