Associations between serum concentrations of haptoglobin, pathological lung lesions indicative of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (EP) or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (PL) infection at slaughter and previous rearing environment were investigated in 510 pigs (90-100 kg live weight) from 17 farms in England. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly higher in pigs showing pathological signs of EP infection compared to those without signs of this disease (EP positive median 0.43 mg ml(-1) vs. EP negative median 0.26 mg ml(-1), p<0.01). However, there were no significant associations between serum haptoglobin concentrations and pathological signs of PL. The presence of solid partitions compared with barred or similar open partitions was associated with a decrease of 0.44 mg ml(-1) farm mean haptoglobin concentration, whilst an increase in pen size of 10 m(2) was associated with a decrease of 0.08 mg ml(-1) farm mean haptoglobin concentration. The findings indicate that pathological signs of EP were associated with increased serum haptoglobin at slaughter, which in turn was influenced by components of the farm environment.