B lymphocyte alloantigens in cattle were identified by serological analysis. Alloantisera were raised by skin implant immunization or leucocyte immunization and were absorbed with platelets to reduce class I-specific antibody activity. Leucocyte absorptions were done to reduce the complexity of some antisera. A panning technique was used to prepare B-enriched and B-depleted lymphocytes. Antisera which displayed anti-B cell activity over a number of dilutions were tested against 115 Charolais cattle, and 13 antisera were used to define five B lymphocyte alloantigens. These antigens were present on B lymphocytes but did not appear to be present, at least at the same density, on the majority of T lymphocytes or platelets. Family studies suggested that these antigens are coded by one or two loci which are closely linked to the bovine class I loci. These results suggest the five antigens are class II antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of cattle.