Heat induces Hsp70.1 (HSPA1) and Hsc70 (HSPA8) to form complex detergent insoluble cytoplasmic and nuclear structures that are distinct from the cytoskeleton and internal cell membranes. These novel structures have not been observed by earlier immunofluorescence studies as they are obscured by the abundance of soluble Hsp70.1/Hsc70 present in cells. While resistant to detergents, these Hsp70 structures display complex intracellular dynamics and are efficiently disaggregated by ATP, indicating that this pool of Hsp70.1/Hsc70 retains native function and regulation. Hsp70.1 promotes the repair of proteotoxic damage and cell survival after stress. In heated fibroblasts expressing Hsp70.1, Hsp70.1 and Hsc70 complexes are efficiently disaggregated before the cells undergo-heat induced apoptosis. In the absence of Hsp70.1, fibroblasts have increased rates of heat-induced apoptosis and maintain stable insoluble Hsc70 structures. The differences in the intracellular distribution of Hsp70.1 and Hsc70, combined with the ability of Hsp70.1, but not Hsc70, to promote the disaggregation of insoluble Hsp70.1/Hsc70 complexes, indicate that these two closely related proteins perform distinctly different cellular functions in heated cells.