Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is required for mammary gland development and promotes the growth of breast cancer metastases within bone. However, there are conflicting reports of the prognostic significance of its expression in primary breast cancers. To study the role of PTHrP in early breast cancer, the effect of conditional deletion of PTHrP was examined in the context of neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Loss of PTHrP resulted in a higher tumor incidence. Transcriptional profiling of the tumors revealed that PTHrP influenced genes relevant to heterotypic cell signaling, including regulators of monocyte recruitment. Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancers revealed that PTHrP expression was associated with both HER-2/neu expression and macrophage infiltration in preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ. The gene expression signature associated with loss of PTHrP expression in vivo correlated with poorer outcome in human breast cancer. Together, these data indicate that loss of PTHrP accelerates mammary tumorigenesis possibly by a non-cell-autonomous tumor suppressor pathway.