BACKGROUND:While developmental surveillance programs promote early identification of child developmental problems, evidence has indicated suboptimal uptake. This study aimed to identify predictors of developmental surveillance completion at 6 months postpartum. METHODS:Questionnaires were administered to the parents of 510 infants who were born in south western Sydney, Australia over a 22-month period. Attendance for developmental screening and completion of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) at 6 months postpartum were modelled separately using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Developmental surveillance attendance was predicted by higher levels of maternal education, annual income and being informed about checks. PEDS completion at 6 months of age was predicted by higher income and being informed, as well as being married, employed, speaking English at home, full-term birth and the professional status of the practitioner completing the check. CONCLUSIONS:Barriers to developmental surveillance included low socioeconomic status, linguistic diversity and possible gaps in parental knowledge and professional education. Developmental surveillance rates may be increased by the addition of targeted parental and professional support within current universal frameworks.