To compare hip bony morphology between ballet dancers and a sporting control group and to determine the relationship with hip pain.Thirty-three professional ballet dancers and 33 age- and sex-matched athletes completed questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent clinical testing and 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging to measure acetabular coverage with lateral centre edge angles, femoral head-neck junction concavity with alpha angles at anterior and superior positions, femoral neck-shaft angles, and acetabular version angles.Bony morphological measures fell within normal ranges. Dancers had higher neck-shaft angles (dancers 134.6 ± 4.6°/athletes130.8 ± 4.7°, p = 0.002), lower acetabular version angles (13.5 ± 4.7°/17.1 ± 4.7°, p = 0.003), lower superior alpha angles (38.9 ± 6.9°/46.7 ± 10.6°, p < 0.001), similar anterior alpha angles (43.6 ± 8.1/46 ± 7°, p = 0.2), and similar lateral centre edge angles (28.8 ± 4.6°/30.8 ± 4.5°, p = 0.07) compared to athletes. Abnormal morphology was detected in dancers: 3% acetabular dysplasia (athletes 0), 15% borderline dysplasia (6%), 24% cam morphology (33%), 24% coxa valga (6%), and 21% acetabular retroversion (18%). The HAGOS pain scores correlated moderately with acetabular version (r = -0.43, p = 0.02) in dancers, with no other correlation between pain and morphological parameters in either group.Professional ballet dancers have hip bony morphology that differentiates them from athletes. Hip pain correlated poorly with bony morphology.• Ballet dancers have hip bony morphology that may allow extreme hip motion. • Morphological parameter means fell within normal reference intervals in dancers. • Bony morphology correlates poorly with hip pain. • The risk of hip injury due to abnormal morphology requires prospective studies.