Background. Sleep duration is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, few T2D risk scores include sleep duration. We aimed to develop T2D scores containing sleep duration and to estimate the additive value of sleep duration. Methods. We used data from 43,404 adults without T2D in the Beijing Health Management Cohort study. The participants were surveyed approximately every 2 years from 2007/2008 to 2014/2015. Sleep duration was calculated from the self-reported usual time of going to bed and waking up at baseline. Logistic regression was employed to construct the risk scores. Integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were used to estimate the additional value of sleep duration. Results. After a median follow-up of 6.8 years, we recorded 2623 (6.04%) new cases of T2D. Shorter (both 6-8 h/night and <6 h/night) sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of T2D (odds ratio , 95% confidence interval -1.59; , -2.41, respectively) compared with a sleep duration of >8 h/night in the adjusted model. Seven variables, including age, education, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, parental history of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose, and sleep duration, were selected to form the comprehensive score; the -index was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.71-0.76) for the test set. The IDI and NRI values for sleep duration were 0.017 (95% CI: 0.012-0.022) and 0.619 (95% CI: 0.518-0.695), respectively, suggesting good improvement in the predictive ability of the comprehensive nomogram. The decision curves showed that women and individuals older than 50 had more net benefit. Conclusions. The performance of T2D risk scores developed in the study could be improved by containing the shorter estimated sleep duration, particularly in women and individuals older than 50.