BACKGROUND AND AIM:Olive oil consumption has been suggested to favorably impact children's health. The present study aimed to identify possible associations between exclusive olive oil consumption and metabolic indices and lifestyle factors. METHODS AND RESULTS:Cross-sectional, observational study. Population data derived from a health survey on a sample of 177 091 children aged 8-17 years. Olive oil consumption and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators. Physical activity (PA) status, screen time and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Exclusive olive oil consumption decreased the odds of obesity and increased the odds of healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by 15% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.95) and 13% (95% CI: 1.04-1.22), respectively, after adjusting for several covariates. Moreover, exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with increased odds of having sufficient dietary habits (average/optimal adherence to the Mediterranean Diet) by almost four times (95% CI: 3.65-4.45) and decreased odds of insufficient sleep (<8-9 h/d) and increased screen time (>2 h/d) by 20% (95% CI: 0.73-0.87) and 40% (95% CI: 0.48-0.72), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with metabolic indices such as obesity and CRF and a healthy lifestyle profile. The exclusive consumption of olive oil as part of a balanced MD does seem to provide favorable health benefits and should be further promoted.