Xeric-adaptation was studied during 28 days of total water deprivation (TWD) in Notomys alexis. Beyond 7 days, the initial reductions in body weight and increases in haematocrit, plasma renin and juxtaglomerular (JG) cell morphological activity returned to normal. Mus musculus showed similar changes at 7 days but could not be maintained thereafter. TWD decreased the blood pressure of Notomys but endogenous angiotensin and vasopressin did not support pressure to a greater extent than controls, as revealed by selective antagonists. The normal morphology of the JG apparatus in Notomys was similar to other rodents. Fluid volume and blood pressure maintenance during TWD in Notomys do not depend upon enhanced activities of the renin-angiotensin and antidiuretic hormonal systems.