AIMS:To explore to what extent type of residence (sheltered housing or ageing in place) contributes to thriving and well-being in older adults, when controlling for age, sex, living alone, being a widow and adjusting for functional status, self-rated health, and depressive mood. DESIGN:A matched cohort study. METHODS:A self-report survey was sent out to a total population of residents in all sheltered housings in Sweden and a matched control group ageing in place (N = 3,805). The data collection took place between October 2016-January 2017. RESULTS:The interaction analyses related to thriving showed that with increasing level of depressive mood and decreasing levels of self-rated health and functional status, those residing in sheltered housing generally reported higher levels of thriving, as compared with those ageing in place. Well-being was not found to be significantly associated with type of accommodation. CONCLUSION:There may be features in sheltered housing that are associated with resident thriving especially among individuals with impairments of function, health or mood, although further studies are required to identify these specific features. IMPACT:This study informs staff and policymakers about thriving and well-being in sheltered housing accommodations. These findings may be used to further the development of sheltered housing accommodations.