Spatial updating and training effects in the first year of human infancy Academic Article uri icon


  • The ability of infants to locate an invisible target after reorientation in their direction of facing was examined in a series of experiments. In a featureless environment, localization of the target site improved between 4 and 8 months. At 8 months it was shown to be dependent on the training procedure. Infants received either instrumental training in which they were trained to anticipate the occurrence of an event at the site, or association training in which one event immediately followed another regardless of their responses. After instrumental training, localization was dependent on visual cues whereas after association training it occurred whether or not visual cues were provided. Contrary to earlier findings, it was concluded that an updating strategy based on proprioceptive information is operative from the second half of the first year.

publication date

  • December 1990