A high-abundance NADH-oxidizing enzyme (NADH: acceptor oxidoreductase, EC 18.104.22.168) has been identified and isolated from a range of anaerobic extreme thermophiles, including strains of Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum and Thermoanaerobium brockii. By use of a pseudo-affinity salt-promoted adsorbent, a nearly pure sample was obtained in one step; remaining impurities were separated by ion-exchange. The fully active purified enzyme contains FAD (two molecules per subunit of 75-78 kDa) and iron-sulphur, and is hexameric in its most active form. The reaction with oxygen is a one- or two-electron transfer to produce superoxide radical and H2O2; other acceptors include tetrazolium salts, dichlorophenol-indophenol, menadione and ferricyanide. The role of the enzyme is not clear; it was found not to be NAD:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, which is a major NADH-utilizing enzyme in these organisms.