Neurological rehabilitation involves the systematic presentation of environmental stimuli and challenges that enable the patient to learn strategies for minimizing their disabilities. Rehabilitation therapy of transplant recipients may be an important factor in enhancing the efficacy of the transplanted organ or tissue to promote functional recovery. Laboratory research and clinical trials on neural transplantation, as an experimental treatment for neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and cerebral ischemia), have focused primarily on devising effective surgical implantation strategies with little attention devoted to the interaction between environmental factors and restorative neurosurgery. Exercise training as part of neurological rehabilitation may be an important factor for neural transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease. Rehabilitation providers are particularly well placed to provide the environment and the support to optimize the behavioral functioning of neural transplant patients in learning to use the new grafted tissue.