Using differential display polymerase chain reaction, a gene was identified in CD34+-enriched populations that had with low or absent expression in CD34− populations. The full coding sequence of this transcript was obtained, and the predicted protein has a high degree of homology to oxysterol-binding protein. This gene has been designated OSBP-related protein 3 (ORP-3). Expression of ORP-3 was found to be 3- to 4-fold higher in CD34+ cells than in CD34− cells. Additionally, expression of this gene was 2-fold higher in the more primitive subfraction of hematopoietic cells defined by the CD34+38− phenotype and was down-regulated with the proliferation and differentiation of CD34+ cells. The ORP-3 predicted protein contains an oxysterol-binding domain. Well-characterized proteins expressing this domain bind oxysterols in a dose-dependent fashion. Biologic activities of oxysterols include inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and cell proliferation in a variety of cell types, among them hematopoietic cells. Characterization and differential expression of ORP-3 implicates a possible role in the mediation of oxysterol effects on hematopoiesis.