Although the β2-integrins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the relative contributions of the α-subunits to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how genetic deficiency of either lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or macrophage-1 (Mac-1) alters the blood cell-endothelial cell interactions, tissue injury, and organ dysfunction in the mouse brain exposed to focal I/R. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced for 1 h (followed by either 4 or 24 h of reperfusion) in wild-type mice and in mice with null mutations for either LFA-1 or Mac-1. Neurological deficit and infarct volume were monitored for 24 h after reperfusion. Platelet- and leukocyte-vessel wall adhesive interactions were monitored in cortical venules by intravital microscopy. Mice with null mutations for LFA-1 or Mac-1 exhibited significant reductions in infarct volume. This was associated with a significant improvement in the I/R-induced neurological deficit. Leukocyte adhesion in cerebral venules did not differ between wild-type and mutant mice at 4 h after reperfusion. However, after 24 h of reperfusion, leukocyte adhesion was reduced in both LFA-1- and Mac-1-deficient mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. Platelet adhesion was also reduced at both 4 and 24 h after reperfusion in the LFA-1- and Mac-1-deficient mice. These findings indicate that both α-subunits of the β2-integrins contribute to the brain injury and blood cell-vessel wall interactions that are associated with transient focal cerebral ischemia.