Four-point impedance as a biomarker for bleeding during cochlear implantation Academic Article uri icon


  • Cochlear implantation has successfully restored the perception of hearing for nearly 200 thousand profoundly deaf adults and children. More recently, implant candidature has expanded to include those with considerable natural hearing which, when preserved, provides an improved hearing experience in noisy environments. But more than half of these patients lose this natural hearing soon after implantation. To reduce this burden, biosensing technologies are emerging that provide feedback on the quality of surgery. Here we report clinical findings on a new intra-operative measurement of electrical impedance (4-point impedance) which, when elevated, is associated with high rates of post-operative hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. In vivo and in vitro data presented suggest that elevated 4-point impedance is likely due to the presence of blood within the cochlea rather than its geometry. Four-point impedance is a new marker for the detection of cochlear injury causing bleeding, that may be incorporated into intraoperative monitoring protocols during CI surgery.


  • Bester, C
  • Razmovski, T
  • Collins, A
  • Mejia, O
  • Foghsgaard, S
  • Mitchell-Innes, A
  • Shaul, C
  • Campbell, L
  • Eastwood, Hayden
  • O’Leary, S

publication date

  • 2020