Visual impairment and major eye diseases in chronic kidney disease: The national health and nutrition examination survey, 2005-2008 Academic Article uri icon


  • PURPOSE:To investigate the prevalence and associations of visual impairment (VI) and major eye diseases with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. METHODS:We investigated the prevalence and associations of VI and major eye diseases with CKD among 5,518 participants aged 40 years or older in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. An estimated glomerular filtration rate of lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined as CKD. Corrected visual acuity of worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye was defined as VI. Major eye diseases, including any ocular disease, any objectively determined ocular disease, cataract surgery, any retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and glaucoma were evaluated from questionnaire or retinal photographs using standardized grading protocols. RESULTS:The prevalence of VI and major eye diseases were approximately 2- to 7-fold higher in participants with CKD than in those without (all P < .05). After controlling for multiple confounders, the presence of CKD was associated with VI (odds ratio [OR]: 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-3.54), any ocular disease (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.22-2.22), any objectively determined ocular disease (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19), any retinopathy (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.45), and DR (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.42). There was no association of CKD with cataract surgery, AMD, or glaucoma. A significant association between CKD and any ocular disease was observed among nondiabetic participants. The presence of CKD was closely related to VI and any retinopathy among diabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS:This nationally representative sample of the US population demonstrated high prevalence and strong associations of VI and major eye diseases with CKD, highlighting the importance of ocular screening among CKD patients and potential common pathogenesis underlying these conditions.

publication date

  • 2020