Purpose:We investigate the impact of parental myopia on spherical equivalent (SE) progression and axial length (AL) elongation. Methods:Children and their parents were invited for annual examinations from 2006 (baseline). Cycloplegic autorefraction and AL were measured at each visit. Parental refractive status was determined using refraction data from their baseline visit. Children were classified into five groups: no myopic parents (non-non), only one moderately myopic parent (non-moderate), only one highly myopic parent (non-high), two moderately myopic parents (moderate-moderate), and one moderately myopic or more severe and one highly myopic parent (moderate-high/high-high). The relationship between progression of SE and AL with parental refractive status was estimated by linear mixed-effects models. Data from 2006 to 2017 were analyzed in the current study. Results:A total of 1831 children were enrolled (mean age, 11 ± 2.7 years; mean standard error, -0.49 ± 2.16 diopters [D] at baseline. Myopia progressed faster for children with parental myopia (non-non group as reference, all P < 0.05), while AL elongation mirrored the change in SE (all P < 0.001 except for non-mod group P = 0.12). As for the age-specific change in SE and AL, children in the mod-high/high-high group presented with the fastest progression. Children with highly myopic parents were at higher risks of being highly myopic during adulthood (odds ratio = 13.98 and 25.71 for non-high and mod-high/high-high groups; both P < 0.001). Conclusions:SE progresses and AL elongates at a faster rate at an earlier age in children with parental myopia. Children with highly-myopic parents have higher risks of being highly myopic during adulthood.