Cellular interactions are critical for the regulation of hematopoiesis. The sialomucin PSGL-1/CD162 mediates the attachment of mature leukocytes to P-selectin. We now show that PSGL-1 also functions as the sole receptor for P-selectin on primitive human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). More importantly, ligation of PSGL-1 by immobilized or soluble ligand or anti-PSGL-1 antibody results in a profound suppression of HPC proliferation stimulated by potent combinations of early acting hematopoietic growth factors. These data demonstrate an unanticipated but extremely marked growth-inhibitory effect of P-selectin on hematopoiesis and provide direct evidence that PSGL-1, in addition to its well-documented role as an adhesion molecule on mature leukocytes, is a potent negative regulator of human hematopoietic progenitors.