Background: Patients receiving dialysis have reduced physical function, which is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes and decreased quality of life. The authors aimed to identify and explore modifiable physical factors associated with physical function for patients receiving dialysis. Methods: Searches were performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Emcare, and The Cochrane Library in October 2018. Etiological studies involving dialysis populations that report association or predictive statistics between a modifiable physical factor and physical function were eligible for inclusion. Predictor variables were (1) modifiable via exercise and (2) considered an impairment in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Results: Of 5384 titles screened, 23 studies were included. Thirteen studies focused on physical activity levels and muscle strength and the relationship with physical function while 2 studies investigated sedentary behavior. Twenty-one studies focused on hemodialysis populations. Studies related to physical activity levels displayed a moderately strong relationship with physical function, whereas muscle strength displayed a predominantly weak to moderate relationship. Conclusions: Physical activity levels, sedentary behavior levels, and muscle strength are related to physical function status for patients receiving dialysis. There is a need for robust longitudinal data to confirm the results of this investigation and for more focus on populations receiving peritoneal dialysis.