Hidden charge states in soft-x-ray laser-produced nanoplasmas revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy Academic Article uri icon


  • Highly charged ions are formed in the center of composite clusters by strong free-electron laser pulses and they emit fluorescence on a femtosecond time scale before competing recombination leads to neutralization of the nanoplasma core. In contrast to mass spectrometry that detects remnants of the interaction, fluorescence in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range provides fingerprints of transient states of high energy density matter. Spectra from clusters consisting of a xenon core and a surrounding argon shell show that a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from multiply charged xenon ions in the cluster core. Initially, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the outer shells of pure xenon clusters with charge states up to at least 11+.


  • Schroedter, L
  • Müller, M
  • Kickermann, A
  • Przystawik, A
  • Toleikis, S
  • Adolph, M
  • Flueckiger, L
  • Gorkhover, T
  • Nösel, L
  • Krikunova, M
  • Oelze, T
  • Ovcharenko, Y
  • Rupp, D
  • Sauppe, M
  • Wolter, D
  • Schorb, S
  • Bostedt, C
  • Möller, T
  • Laarmann, T

publication date

  • 2014